Tag Archives: TXA

Best Of EAST #16: More On TXA

Here’s another abstract dealing with TXA. But this one deals with the classic CRASH-2 use for patients with major bleeding. The original patient showed that TXA improves survival if given within 3 hours of injury. More and more prehospital units (particularly aeromedical services) have been administering TXA enroute to the trauma center to ensure that this drug is given as early as possible.

Many of these same services carry packed cells (or in rare cases, whole blood) so that proper resuscitation can be started while enroute as well. A multicenter group led by the University of Pittsburgh evaluated the utility of giving both TXA and blood during prehospital transport.

Their study summarizes some of the results of the Study of Tranexamic Acid During Air and Ground Medical Prehospital Transport Trial (STAAMP Trial). This study ran from 2015 to 2019 and randomized patients to receive either TXA or placebo during air or ground transport to a trauma center. It included blunt or penetrating patients at risk for hemorrhage within 2 hours of injury who were either hypotensive or tachycardic. Outcome measures included 30-day mortality, 24-hour mortality, and a host of complications.

This abstract outlines a secondary analysis that retrospectively reviewed the impact of using prehospital packed red cells (pRBC) in addition to the TXA/placebo during transport. 

Here are the factoids:

  • There were 763 patients in total, broken down as follows
    • TXA only – 350
    • pRBC only – 35
    • TXA + pRBC – 22
    • Neither – 356
  • Patients who received blood with or without TXA were more severely injured with ISS 22 vs 10-12 in the non-pRBC groups
  • Mortality was higher in the pRBC (23%) and TXA+pRBC groups (29%)
  • TXA alone did not decrease mortality
  • TXA + pRBC resulted in a 46% reduction in 30-day mortality but not at 24 hours
  • packed cells alone decreased 24-hour mortality by 47%

The authors concluded basically what was stated in the results: short term mortality was decreased by pRBC alone, and 30-day mortality with TXA + pRBC. They recommended further work to elucidate the mechanisms involved.

Bottom line: This abstract may also suffer from the “low numbers” syndrome I’ve written about so many times before. The conclusions are based on two small groups that make up only 7% of the entire study group. And these are the two groups with more than double the ISS of the rest of the patients. The authors used some sophisticated statistics to test their hypotheses, and they will need to explain how and why they are appropriate for this analysis. Nevertheless, the mortalities in the blood groups number only in the single digits, so I worry about these statistics.

Here are my questions for the authors and presenter:

  • How do you reconcile the significantly higher ISS in the two (very small) groups who got blood? How might this skew your conclusions regarding mortality? Couldn’t the TXA just be superfluous?
  • How confident are you with the statistical analysis? Could the results be a sampling error given that red cells were given to only 7% of the overall study group?
  • I am having a difficult time understanding the conclusion that mortality was reduced in the blood groups. Specifically, it is stated that 24-hour mortality is reduced by 47% in the blood-only group.  But the mortality is 14% (5 patients)! Reduced 47% from what? I don’t see any other numbers to compare with in the table. Confusing!

Obviously, there must be more information that was not listed in the abstract. Can’t wait to see it!

Reference: PREHOSPITAL SYNERGY: TRANEXAMIC ACID AND BLOOD TRANSFUSION IN PATIENTS AT RISK FOR HEMORRHAGE. EAST 35th ASA, oral abstract #39.

 

 

Reference: PREHOSPITAL SYNERGY: TRANEXAMIC ACID AND BLOOD TRANSFUSION IN PATIENTS AT RISK FOR HEMORRHAGE. EAST 35th ASA, oral abstract #39.

Best Of EAST #15: Prehospital TXA

The world is divided into trauma centers that are TXA believers and those that are TXA nonbelievers. It all depends on how one interprets the CRASH-2 data and subsequent studies. Then came CRASH-3 with TXA use for patients with TBI. This large study found improved survival in patients with mild to moderate head injury when given “early.”

The group at Oregon Health Science University tried to better define this concept of “early.” They examined early vs later administration of TXA in patients with moderate to severe TBI. Note that this degree of head injury is a bit different than CRASH-3 (mild to moderate in CRASH-3 and moderate to severe in this one). This was a multicenter trial that included patients with GCS < 12 and who were hypotensive with SBP < 90. Patients received either a 1g bolus followed by a 1g infusion over 8 hours, or a 2 g bolus only. The authors subdivided these patients into early administration (<45 minutes after injury) or late (45 minutes to 2 hours after injury).

Here are the factoids:

  • There were 354 patients in the early administration group and 259 in the late group
  • All outcomes, including 1 month and 6 month mortality and the extended Glasgow outcome scale were not significantly different between early and late groups (exact numbers were not given)
  • There was no difference in secondary complications between the groups (again, exact numbers or complication types were not given)

The authors concluded that there was no difference in outcomes in early vs later administration of TXA in these head injured patients. They suggest that patients can be given TXA anytime within two hours without loss of benefit.

Bottom line: Essentially, this ends up as a noninferiority study. The biggest question with this type of study is, do you have enough subjects to detect a significant difference? Taken to an extreme, let’s say you have 5 patients who receive a drug who are compared to 5 who did not for some mystery condition. Three who did not get the drug die (60% mortality), but only two who get it do (40% mortality). In relative terms, there was 33% decrease in mortality with the drug. But in absolute terms, it was one patient. Would anyone see this as a significant result with such small numbers?

But now multiply by a thousand, and 300 die without the drug and only 200 die who were given it. The relative difference is the same, but the absolute difference is beginning to look large and significant.

So the smaller study won’t meet the test of significance but the larger one will. The key question in the TXA study here is, do they have enough patients enrolled to show there is no real difference between the groups? I love doing back of the napkin power analyses, and I admit I certainly don’t have all the numbers and probabilities needed for a precise calculation. But the groups sizes in this study (354 vs 259) seem a bit small to achieve significance unless there are large disparities in outcomes. 

I certainly recognize that it’s just not possible to put all the relevant information for a research project into a four paragraph abstract. One would need to be able to submit 12 slide PowerPoint decks. So I’m sure more info will be available as I take in the presentation next Friday.

Here are my questions for the authors and presenter:

  • The study is nicely designed as a randomized, double-blind trial, but how did you blind one vs two doses? Did everyone get an infusion of something, TXA vs saline?
  • Why did you select 45 minutes as the cutoff for early vs late administration? Was this arbitrary or is it based some data?
  • Show us the power analysis that demonstrates the total number of patients in the study is sufficient to show us true non-significance in your results.
  • And I’m sure you will show the actual survival and complications numbers (and type) in the presentation, since they were not available in the abstract.

Reference: THE EFFECTS OF TIMING OF PREHOSPITAL TRANEXAMIC ACID ON OUTCOMES AFTER TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY. EAST 35th ASA, oral abstract #40.

Are You A TXA Believer, Or TXA Hesitant?

I’ve visited several hundred trauma centers over the past 25 years, and recently I’ve begun to appreciate that there are two camps when it comes to the use of tranexamic acid: the TXA believers and the TXA hesitant.

There have been a number of large studies that seem to suggest a benefit with respect to survival from major hemorrhage, particularly if given soon after injury (CRASH-2, MATTERs). This drug is dirt cheap and has been around a long time, so it has a clearly defined risk profile.

However, many of those hesitant to use it point to the possibility of thromboembolic events that have been sporadically reported. Several years ago, I did my own literature review and found that the number of thrombotic events from TXA was nearly identical to that of transfusing plasma.

JAMA Surgery just published a large systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression that sought to examine the association between thromboembolic events (TE) in patients of any age and involving all medical disciplines, not just trauma.

The anesthesia group at the University Hospital Frankfurt in Germany did a systematic search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, as well as MEDLINE, for randomized controlled trials involving TXA. They covered all published studies through December 2020.

The authors adhered to standard guidelines for con-ducting reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA). They specifically searched for outcomes involving TEs, such as venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction or ischemia, limb ischemia, mesenteric thrombosis, and hepatic artery thrombosis. They also tallied the overall mortality, bleeding mortality, and non-bleeding mortality.

Here are the factoids:

• A total of 216 eligible trials were identified that included over 125,000 patients

• Total TEs in the TXA group were 1,020 (2.1%) vs 900 (2.0%) in the control group

• Studies at lowest risk for selection bias showed similar results

Bottom line: The authors concluded that IV TXA, irrespective of the dose, does not increase the risk of thromboembolic events. Period.

Hopefully, this is the final study needed to convince the TXA hesitant that it is safe to administer. They may still argue the efficacy, but at less than $100 per vial it is becoming impossible to ignore.

Reference: Association of Intravenous Tranexamic Acid
With Thromboembolic Events and Mortality A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Meta-regression. JAMA Surgery 156(6):3210884, 2021.

TXA, Thromboembolic Events, And Mortality

I’ve visited several hundred trauma centers over the past 25 years, and recently I’ve begun to appreciate that there are two camps  when it comes to the use of tranexamic acid: the TXA believers and the TXA hesitant.

There have been a number of large studies that seem to suggest a benefit with respect to survival from major hemorrhage, particularly if given soon after injury (CRASH-2, MATTERs). This drug is dirt cheap and has been around a long time, so it has a clearly defined risk profile.

However, many of those hesitant to use it point to the possibility of thromboembolic events that have been sporadically reported. Several years ago, I did my own literature review and found that the number of thrombotic events from TXA was nearly identical to that of transfusing plasma.

JAMA Surgery just published a large systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression that sought to examine the association between thromboembolic events (TE) in patients of any age and involving all medical disciplines, not just trauma.

The anesthesia group at the University Hospital Frankfurt in German did a systematic search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, as well as MEDLINE, for randomized controlled trials involving TXA. They covered all published studies through December 2020.

The authors adhered to standard guidelines for conducting reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA). They specifically searched for outcomes involving TEs, such as venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction or ischemia, limb ischemia, mesenteric thrombosis, and hepatic artery thrombosis. They also tallied the overall mortality, bleeding mortality, and non-bleeding mortality.

Here are the factoids:

  • A total of 216 eligible trials were identified that included over 125,000 patients (!)
  • Total TEs in the TXA group were 1,020 (2.1%) vs 900 (2.0%) in the control group
  • Studies at lowest risk for selection bias showed similar results

Bottom line: The authors concluded that IV TXA, irrespective of the dose, does not increase the risk of thromboembolic events. Period.

Hopefully, this is the final study needed to convince the TXA hesitant that it is safe to administer. They may still argue the efficacy, but at less than $100 per vial it is becoming impossible to ignore.

Reference: Association of Intravenous Tranexamic Acid With Thromboembolic Events and Mortality A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Meta-regression. JAMA Surgery 156(6):3210884, 2021.

The July 2021 Trauma MedEd Newsletter Is Live! Yet More Potpourri

I’ve put together another issue of miscellaneous, interesting stuff!

In this issue, learn about:

  • The effect of ambulance deceleration on ICP in head injury patients
  • An interesting technique for sealing vacuum systems applied around external fixators
  • An analysis of thrombotic events following TXA administration
  • The utility of a second head CT in patients taking DOACs

To download the current issue, just click here!

Or copy this link into your browser: https://www.traumameded.com/courses/more-potpourri-july-21/

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