Category Archives: General

The Best of EAST! Starts tomorrow!

Starting tomorrow, and continuing through the annual meeting of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma, I will be analyzing one of the upcoming presentations each day. That’s 13 papers, and I’ll be picking some of the notable ones.

Remember, abstracts are teasers to get you to read/listen to the full paper. I’ll be reviewing them in detail, putting them into context, and this year I’ll be providing a list of questions that the presenters should be prepared to field from the audience. And I’ll be in that audience, so I will probably ask a few of them!

Enjoy the commentary, and I’ll see many of you at EAST in sunny Hollywood, Florida!

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Next Trauma MedEd Newsletter Is Coming Next Week!

As promised, the next Trauma MedEd newsletter will be released next week. Just in time for some light Christmas reading!

The topic is “Prevention.” Here are the areas I’ll be covering:

  • The American College of Surgeons requires all US trauma centers to engage in prevention activities. Unfortunately, there is frequently confusion about the role of the injury prevention coordinator, what kinds of programs are acceptable, and how local data needs to be included in prevention planning. I will cover all of this, and more, in the first part of the newsletter.
  • Curious about what others are doing out there? I’ll give you an idea of the most common prevention programs, and whether they are national programs or home grown.
  • I’ll review a few papers on the efficacy of trauma prevention programs.
  • Finally, I’ll give some tips on how to optimize the performance of your injury prevention coordinator and design effective programs.

As always, this issue will go to all of my subscribers first. If you are not yet one of them, click this link to sign up and/or download back issues.

Unfortunately, non-subscribers will have to wait until I release the issue on this blog, sometime during the week after Christmas. So sign up now!

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The Cribari Grid And Over/Undertriage

I’ve spent some time discussing undertriage and overtriage. I frequently get questions on the “Cribari grid” or “Cribari method” for calculating these numbers. Dr. Cribari is a previous chair of the Verification Review Subcommittee of the ACS Committee on Trauma. He developed a table-format grid that provides a simplified method for calculating these numbers.

But remember, the gold standard for calculating over- and undertriage is examining each admission to see if they met any of your trauma activation triage criteria. The Cribari method is designed for those programs that do not check these on every admission. It is a surrogate that allows you to identify patients with higher ISS that might have benefited from a trauma activation.

So if you use the Cribari method, use it as a first pass to identify potential undertriage. Then, examine the chart of every patient in the undertriage list to see if they meet any of your activation criteria. If not, they were probably not undertriaged. However, you must then look at their injuries and overall condition to see if they might have been better cared for by your trauma team. If so, perhaps you need to add a new activation criterion. And then count that patient as undertriage, of course.

I’ve simplified the calculation process even more and provided a Microsoft Word document that automates the task for you. Just download the file, fill in four values in the table, update the formulas and voila, you’ve got your numbers! Instructions for manual calculations are also included. Download it by clicking the image below or the link at the end of this post.

cribarigrid

Download the calculator by clicking here

Related posts:

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The Chance Fracture

Centers that take care of blunt trauma are familiar with the spectrum of injury that is directly attributable to seat belt use. Although proper restraint significantly decreases mortality and serious head injury, seat belts can cause visceral injury, especially to small bowel.

Lap belt use has been associated with Chance fracture (flexion distraction injury to the lumbar spine) since 1982. The association between seat belts and intra-abdominal injury, especially with an obvious “seat belt sign” was first described in 1987.

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Chance fracture. The vertebra appears to split in half from posterior to anterior.

Twenty years ago, orthopedic surgeons in Manitoba finally put two and two together and reported a series of 7 cases of Chance fractures. They noted that 6 of the fractures were associated with restraint use. Seat belt sign was also present in 5 of the 6 patients with fractures and three of the six had bowel injuries.

The authors noted that many provinces were mandating seatbelt use at the time, and they predicted that the number of Chance fractures, seat belt signs and hollow viscus injuries would increase. On the positive side, the number of deaths and serious head injuries would be expected to decline.

Although this was a small series, it finally cemented the unusual Chance fracture, seat belt sign, and bowel injury after motor vehicle trauma.

Thankfully, three point restraints (lap belt + shoulder harness) has been required in the seats next to doors for a long time. And since 2007, they have been mandated in the middle seat as well. Thus, these injuries seldom occur in any but the oldest (beater) cars on the road. They are seen more frequently now with sports and extreme sports injuries.

Chance fractures are frequently unstable, involving all three columns of the spine. The anterior column fails under compression, and the middle and posterior columns fail from the distraction mechanism. Usually, this fracture pattern requires operative fixation. However, if the posterior column is intact, a TLSO brace can be tried. This fracture is at risk for non-union and development of kyphosis or a flat back, which can lead to chronic pain and an abnormal posture.

Reference: Pediatric Chance Fractures: Association with Intra-abdominal Injuries and Seatbelt Use. Reid et al. J Trauma 30(4) 384-91, 1990.

 

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By Request: Submental Intubation

I’ve had a number of recent requests regarding this technique, so I’m updating and reposting today and tomorrow.

Here’s one of the weirder procedures I’ve seen in some time. Imagine that you need a definitive airway, but you can’t use the face for some reason (mouth or nose). The usual choice would be a tracheostomy, right? But what if you only need it for a few days? Typically, once placed, trachs must be kept for a few weeks before decannulation is safe.

Enter submental intubation. This technique involves passing an endotracheal tube through the anterior floor of the mouth, and then down the airway. This leaves the facial bones, mandible, and skull base untouched.

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The technique is straightforward:

  • After initially intubating the patient  orotracheally, a 1.5cm incision is created just off the midline in the submental area under the chin.
  • Using a hemostat, all layers are penetrated, entering the oropharynx just lateral to the tongue.
  • A 1.5cm incision is then made at the puncture site, parallel to the gum line of the lower teeth.
  • The ET tube is removed from the ventilator circuit, and the connector at the proximal end of the tube is removed.
  • The hemostat is placed through the chin incision again. The proximal end of the ET tube is curled into the oropharynx and grasped with the hemostat, then pulled out through the skin under the chin, leaving the distal (balloon) end in the trachea.
  • The connector is reinserted, and the tube is then hooked up to the anesthesia circuit again.
  • The tube is then secured using a stitch under the chin.

After a final position check, the surgical procedure can commence. Cool!

 

There are a number of variations on this technique, so you may encounter slightly different descriptions. The tube can be pulled at the end of the procedure, or left for a few days to ensure safe extubation, if needed.

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A small series of 10 patients undergoing this technique was reviewed, and there were no short or long term problems. Scarring under the chin was acceptable, and was probably less noticeable than a trach scar.

Bottom line: This is a unique and creative method for intubating patients with very short-term airway needs while their facial fractures are being fixed. Brilliant idea!

Tomorrow: Submental intubation – the video!

Reference: Submental intubation in patients with panfacial fractures: a prospective study. Indian J Anaesth 55(3):299-304, 2011.

Photo source: internet

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