All posts by TheTraumaPro

Adding A Hospitalist To The Trauma Service

Hospitals are increasingly relying on a hospitalist model to deliver care to inpatients on medical services. These medical generalists are usually trained in general internal medicine, family medicine, or pediatrics and provide general hospital-based care. Specialists, both medical and surgical, may be consulted when needed.

In most higher level trauma centers in the US (I and II), major trauma patients are admitted to a surgical service (Trauma), and other nonsurgical specialists are consulted based on the needs of the patients and the competencies of the surgeons managing the patients. As our population ages, more and more elderly patients are admitted for traumatic injury, with more and more complex medical comorbidities.

Is there a benefit to adding medical expertise to the trauma service? A few studies have now looked at this, and I will review them over the next few days. The Level I trauma center at Christiana Care in Wilmington, Delaware embedded a trauma hospitalist (THOSP) in the trauma service. They participated in the care of trauma patients with coronary artery disease, CHF, arrhythmias, chronic diseases of the lung or kidneys, stroke, diabetes, or those taking anticoagulants.

The THOSP was consulted on appropriate patients upon admission, or during admission if one of the conditions was discovered later. They attended morning and afternoon sign-outs, and weekly multidisciplinary rounds. A total of 566 patients with hospitalist involvement were matched to controls, and ultimately 469 patients were studied.

Here are the factoids:

  • Addition of the THOSP resulted in a 1 day increase in hospital length of stay
  • Trauma readmissions decreased significantly from 2.4% to 0.6%
  • The number of upgrades to ICU status doubled, but ICU LOS remained the same
  • Mortality decreased significantly from 2.9% to 0.4%
  • The incidence of renal failure decreased significantly
  • Non-significant decreases in cardiovascular events, DVT/PE and sepsis were also noted
  • There was no difference in the number of medical specialty consults placed (cardiology, endocrinology, neurology, nephrology)

Bottom line: This paper shows some positive impact, along with some puzzling mixed results. The decrease in mortality and many complications is very positive. Was the increase in ICU transfers due to a different care philosophy in medical vs surgical personnel? And the failure to decrease the number of specialty consults was very disappointing to me. I would expect that having additional medical expertise on the team should make a difference there.

Was the THOSP really “embedded” if they were not involved in the regular daily rounds? In this case, they were present only for handoffs and for weekly multidisciplinary rounds. I believe that having them on the rounding team daily would be of huge benefit, allowing the surgeons and hospitalists to learn from each other. Plus, there should be a benefit to the residents in a Level I center, helping them broaden their ability to care for these complicated patients.

Reference: Embedding a trauma hospitalist in the trauma service reduces mortality and 30-day trauma-related readmissions. J Trauma 81(1):178-183, 2016.

Hitting The Brakes May Increase Intracranial Pressure During The Ambulance Ride!

One of the most common injuries encountered by trauma professionals is blunt head trauma, and it’s one of the leading causes of death in young people. Keeping the level of intracranial pressure (ICP) within a specified range is one of the basic tenets of critical neurotrauma care in these patients. Most trauma centers have sophisticated algorithms that provide treatment guidance for various levels of ICP or cerebral perfusion.

The vast majority of patients with severe head injuries are transported to the hospital in some type of ambulance. Obviously, the exact ICP level is not known during transport because no monitoring device is present. We can sometimes infer that ICP is elevated if the patient has a Cushing response (wide pulse pressure and bradycardia) or unequal pupils. But for the most part, we assume that ICP is in a steady state during the ambulance ride.

But here’s something I never considered before: can ambulance acceleration or deceleration change the ICP through shifting of the brain or cerebrospinal fluid?

Patients are generally loaded into ambulances head-first, with their feet toward the back door. Frequently, they must be positioned supine in consideration of possible thoracic or lumbar spine injury. This position itself may lead to an increase in ICP. But what happens when the ambulance is hitting the brakes as it approaches a light or stop sign? As the patient’s weight shifts toward the top of the head, so does the CSF, spinal cord, and brain. Couldn’t this, too, increase ICP?

The anesthesiology group at the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, Holland performed a very novel study to assess this very thing. They recruited twenty participants in whom they evaluated ICP in various positions during acceleration and deceleration.
No, the subjects did not have an actual invasive ICP monitor inserted.

The authors used a novel way to infer pressures: optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD). The optic nerves are direct extensions of the brain, and CSF travels freely in the nerve sheath. As ICP rises, the diameter of the nerve sheath increases. The subjects were fitted with a special helmet with two devices mounted on it. The first was a 7.5 Mhz ultra-sound probe focused on the back of the eye. The second was an arm with an orange dot on the end. This was adjusted so that the ultrasound probe was pointing at the optic nerve sheath when the other eye was focused on the dot. Subjects just watched the dot and measurements streamed in! Crude but very effective.

Baseline measurements were taken without acceleration or deceleration, then repeated when accelerating to 50 km/hr and decelerating to a stop.

Here are the factoids:

  • A total of 20 subjects were tested, and their oxygen saturation, blood pressure, and pulse were identical pre- and post-test
  • Baseline ONSD was about 5mm; a relevant change in diameter was determined to be more than 0.2 mm
  • Lying supine, the ONSD in nearly all subjects increased from an average 4.8 to 6.0 mm during deceleration
  • With the head raised to 30º, most values remained steady (from 4.8 to 4.9 mm) during deceleration

The left block shows the increase in size of the optic disk with braking while supine. The right one demonstrates that this effect is neutralized by elevating the head 30º.

Bottom line: This is a small, simple, and creative study, yet the results are very interesting! It is clear that optic nerve sheath diameter increases significantly during deceleration in patients who are supine. And this effect is eliminated if the head of bed is elevated 30º.

Unfortunately, we have no idea how the change in ONSD corresponds to absolute values of, or relative increases in, ICP. Does a change of 1.2mm indicate a 5 torr increase in ICP? A 5% increase? Is it proportional to the absolute ICP? We just don’t know.

But the data is clear that a measurable change does occur. Until better data is available, it may be desirable to transport patients with serious head injuries with the head elevated to 30º if there are no concerns for lower spine injury. Or failing that, make sure the driver does not have a lead foot!

Reference: Ambulance deceleration causes increased intra cranial pressure in supine position: a prospective observational prove of principle study. Scand J Trauma Open Access 29:87, 2021.

TXA, Thromboembolic Events, And Mortality

I’ve visited several hundred trauma centers over the past 25 years, and recently I’ve begun to appreciate that there are two camps  when it comes to the use of tranexamic acid: the TXA believers and the TXA hesitant.

There have been a number of large studies that seem to suggest a benefit with respect to survival from major hemorrhage, particularly if given soon after injury (CRASH-2, MATTERs). This drug is dirt cheap and has been around a long time, so it has a clearly defined risk profile.

However, many of those hesitant to use it point to the possibility of thromboembolic events that have been sporadically reported. Several years ago, I did my own literature review and found that the number of thrombotic events from TXA was nearly identical to that of transfusing plasma.

JAMA Surgery just published a large systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression that sought to examine the association between thromboembolic events (TE) in patients of any age and involving all medical disciplines, not just trauma.

The anesthesia group at the University Hospital Frankfurt in German did a systematic search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, as well as MEDLINE, for randomized controlled trials involving TXA. They covered all published studies through December 2020.

The authors adhered to standard guidelines for conducting reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA). They specifically searched for outcomes involving TEs, such as venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction or ischemia, limb ischemia, mesenteric thrombosis, and hepatic artery thrombosis. They also tallied the overall mortality, bleeding mortality, and non-bleeding mortality.

Here are the factoids:

  • A total of 216 eligible trials were identified that included over 125,000 patients (!)
  • Total TEs in the TXA group were 1,020 (2.1%) vs 900 (2.0%) in the control group
  • Studies at lowest risk for selection bias showed similar results

Bottom line: The authors concluded that IV TXA, irrespective of the dose, does not increase the risk of thromboembolic events. Period.

Hopefully, this is the final study needed to convince the TXA hesitant that it is safe to administer. They may still argue the efficacy, but at less than $100 per vial it is becoming impossible to ignore.

Reference: Association of Intravenous Tranexamic Acid With Thromboembolic Events and Mortality A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Meta-regression. JAMA Surgery 156(6):3210884, 2021.

In The Next Trauma MedEd Newsletter: Lots Of Practical Tips!

The September issue of the Trauma MedEd newsletter will be sent out soon. It will provide a bunch of practical tips on a wide variety of topics.

This issue is being released to subscribers over the weekend. If you sign up any time before then, you will receive it, too. Otherwise, you’ll have to wait until it goes out to the general public at the end of next week. Click this link right away to sign up now and/or download back issues.

In this issue, get some tips on:

  • Managing Penetrating Injury
  • Nursing Tips For Pediatric Orthopedic Injury
  • Abdominal Packing Tips
  • Geriatric Trauma Management
  • Tips For Trauma In Pregnancy
  • Managing CSF Leaks

As always, this month’s issue will go to all of my subscribers first. If you are not yet one of them, click this link right away to sign up now and/or download back issues.

Best Of AAST 2021: Trauma Transfers Discharged From The ED

Aren’t these embarrassing? A referring center sends you a patient with the idea that they will be evaluated and admitted to your hospital. But it doesn’t work out that way. The patient is seen, possibly by a surgical specialist, bandaged up, and then sent home. Probably to one that is quite a few miles away. Not only is this a nuisance for the patient and an embarrassment for the sending center, it may use resources at the trauma center that are already tight.

Transfer patients who are seen and discharged are another form of “ultimate overtriage.” In this case, the incorrect triage takes place at the outside hospital.  The trauma group in Oklahoma City reviewed their experience with these patients over a two year period. They looked exclusively at patients who were transferred in to a Level I center and then discharged.

Here are the factoids:

  • A total of 2,350 patients were transferred in, and 27% were transferred home directly from the trauma bay (!)
  • The three most common culprits by injury pattern were face (51%), hand (31%), isolated ortho injury (9%)
  • A third of these patients required a bedside procedure, including laceration repair (53%), eye exam (24%), splinting (18%), and joint reduction (5%)
  • Ten facilities accounted for 40% of the transfers

The authors concluded that the typical injuries prompting transfer are predictable. It may be possible to reduce the number of transfers by deploying telemedicine systems to push evaluations out to the referring hospitals.

Bottom line: This is quite interesting. Anyone who works in a Level I or II center is aware of this phenomenon. This abstract went a step further and quantified the specific issues involved. This center ended up discharging over 300 patients per year after transfer in. This is a tremendous drain on resources by patients who did not truly have the need for them.

The authors speculate that telemedicine evaluation may help reduce some of those transfers. This seems like an easy solution. However, it also poses a lot of issues in terms of who will actually staff the calls and how will they be compensated for their time.

There are a number of important take-aways from this abstract:

  1. Know your referring hospitals. In this study, there were 10 hospitals that generated an oversize number of referrals. Those are the targets / low hanging fruit. Identify them!
  2. Understand what their needs are. Are they frequently having issues with simple ortho injuries? Eye exams? This is what they need!
  3. Provide education and training to make them more comfortable. This allows you to target those hospitals with exactly the material they need and hopefully make them more self-sufficient.

This allows the higher level centers to reserve phone and/or telemedicine consultation for only the most ambiguous cases. It’s a better use of telehealth resources that may be needed, typically at night and on weekends.

Here are my questions for the presenter and authors:

  • Would the common issues that were transferred and discharged be amenable to education and training at the referring centers to decrease the transfer volume?
  • How have you begun to address this issue at your center?

Reference: TRAUMA TRANSFERS DISCHARGED FROM THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT – IS THERE A ROLE FOR TELEMEDICINE. AAST 2021, Oral abstract #63.