This video reviews the potential causes of agitation that you may encounter in trauma patients. It features JJ Rasimas MD, a psychiatrist at Regions Hospital. He is interviewed by our illustrious Jessie Nelson MD. This video was first broadcast at Trauma Education: The Next Generation.
Trauma hurts like hell. Over the years, we’ve developed quite a few ways of combating this pain. A number of drug classes have been developed to reduce it. One of the more common non-narcotic drug classes are the NSAIDs. As I’ve mentioned before, every drug has dozens of effects. Drug companies market a particular medication based on one of the predominant effects. All the others are considered side effects.
NSAIDs are not unique; they have lots of side effects as well. In 2003, several papers brought to light possible interactions between these drugs and fracture healing. Specifically, there were questions about these drugs interfering with the healing process and of increasing the number of delayed unions or nonunions. But once again, how convincing were these papers, really?
It would seem to make sense that NSAIDs could interfere with bone healing. This process relies heavily on the regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast function, which itself is regulated by prostaglandins. Since prostaglandins are synthesized by the COX enzymes, COX inhibitors like the NSAIDs should have the potential to impair this process. Indeed, animal studies in rats and rabbits seem to bear this out.
But as we have seen before, good animal studies don’t always translate well to human experience. Although a study from 2005 suggested that NSAID administration in older patients within 90 days of injury had a higher incidence of fracture nonunion, the study design was not a very good one. It is equally likely that patients who required these drugs in this age group may have been at higher risk for nonunion in the first place.
In fact, there are no large, prospective randomized studies that have explored the effect of short-term or long-term NSAID administration on fracture repair. But there have been several smaller studies that showed absolutely no effect on nonunion with short-term administration of this drug class. Yet the dogma that leads us to avoid giving these drugs persists.
Bottom line: Once again, the animal data is clear but the human data is not. Although there are theoretical concerns about their use, there is not enough solid risk:benefit information to abandon short-term NSAID use in patients who really need them. NSAIDs can and should be prescribed in patients with short-term needs and simple fractures.
- Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on bone formation and soft-tissue healing. J AM Acad Orthop Surg 12:139-43, 2004.
- Effect of COX-2 on fracture-healing in the rat femur. J Bone Joint Surg Am 86:116-123, 2004.
- Effects of perioperative anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating therapy on surgical wound healing. Pharmacotherapy 25:1566-1591, 2005.
- Pharmacological agents and impairment of fracture healing: what is the evidence? Injury 39:384-394, 2008.
- High dose nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs compromise spinal fusion. Can J Anaesth 52:506-512, 2005.
I’ve heard this time and time again over the years. Don’t remove a bullet using metal forceps or a hemostat. Don’t drop it into a metal pan. Have you heard these, too? Is it true?
The idea is that rifling marks on the bullet that would help match it to a particular weapon may be damaged through mishandling, interfering with any criminal investigation.
So I decided to go to a reputable source. I asked a local police firearms and munitions expert the question. The result:
Myth busted! The amount of damage to the bullet due to handling with metal instruments is negligible and will not interfere with an investigation. Many of the bullets used in crimes are jacketed with copper or other metals, which are resistant to damage anyway. The surgeon would have to make an intentional effort to damage the bullet enough to interfere with a ballistics investigation. And I don’t recommend that anyway!
Here’s the first in a series of “When To Call” pieces. We sometimes overuse our consultants and call then at inappropriate times. So what if we diagnose an injury in their area of expertise at 2 am? Does it need attention or an operation before morning? If not, why call at that ungodly hour?
Let’s use our consultants wisely! I’ve listed most of the common urologic diagnoses that trauma professionals will encounter. There is also an indication of what you need to do, and exactly when to call your consultant.
Here’s a reference sheet formatted at a 3×5 index card that you can keep in your pocket. I’ve included a printable pdf file, as well as the original Microsoft Publisher file in case you want to make a few modifications to suit your own hospital.
This video is directed to emergency physicians and orthopedic surgeons who have to manage ankle dislocations. It will show you the following:
- Types of ankle dislocation
- The Quigley maneuver
- How to apply the Sugartong splint
- Lots of practical tips!
The video was broadcast at this year’s Trauma Education: The Next Generation conference, and features Sarah Anderson MD, an orthopedic surgeon at Regions Hospital.