AAST 2011: Acute Kidney Injury From IV Contrast

Yesterday, I wrote about using acute kidney injury (AKI) as a predictor for multiple organ failure. But what about kidney failure that we may inadvertently create through the use of IV contrast during CT scan evaluation? Contrast is generally safe for use in the general trauma population, but is known to cause renal problems in high risk groups like the elderly and critically ill.

Investigators at UCSD retrospectively reviewed ICU patients who had no history of pre-existing renal disease. A total of 570 eligible patients were identified, and 170 (30%) developed AKI. Being old (age>=75) or severely injured (ISS>=25) was a predictor of AKI, but IV contrast was not. Even during subgroup analysis, the addition of contrast to the elderly or severely injured patient population did not predict AKI.

Bottom line: This limited study shows that IV contrast exposure may be considered safe, even in the elderly and severely injured. However, I still recommend that all risks and benefits be thoroughly weighed in every patient, and that scans that have little diagnostic and therapeutic benefit be avoided.

Reference: Is contrast exposure safe among the highest risk trauma patients? AAST 2011 Annual Meeting, Paper 69.

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